Written in the stars
She was a nurse in a local hospital. He was a fireman and he risked his life almost every day. They didn't know each other, but their acquaintance was written in the stars.
Ted was a widower. He lost his wife and his lovely daughter in a terrible fire ten years ago. He lost everything that he had, that he loved. And now he lived at his old parents' place, as he lost not only his family but also his house in that fire. After the accident, he decided to become a fireman. He had been studying for four years and finally he got a qualification. Since then his job was to save other people's lives but the only person, that he tried but he couldn't save, was himself. He was dying of loneliness and darkness in his exhausted soul.
Stella had been single for a long time. All her friends said to her that she was too choosy about men. But she didn't care.
That August day was an ordinary one. Stella was at work. But suddenly she heard shouts and caught the awful smell of burning. Her first thought was: "This is the end!" She tried to save patients but it was too late – the building was in fire. Then…she fainted and when Stella opened her eyes, she saw him: his face was dirty and black from soot but it didn't matter because she could see his kind eyes and then…darkness again.
Stella woke up in a ward. Her first thought was: "Congratulate you, Stella. You have become a patient!" The next moment a stranger was coming into her ward, she didn't know him…but his eyes… Their acquaintance was written in the stars.
(by Natasha Gonchar)
Wigs and Lawyers
English legal dress has a long history. The introduction of wigs into polite society in the reign of Charles II (1660-85) was an innovation which could not be resisted. After a period of disapproval, wigs were generally assumed by lawyers in 1680's. Before the 17th century lawyers did not wear wigs. But professional discipline required that their hair and beards should be moderately short. By the middle of the 17th century wigs of powdered white or grey hair were the universal custom. But during George Ill's reign (1760-1820) wigs went rapidly out of general use.Although bishops were given royal permission to abandon their wigs in 1830, this was not necessarily true of other officials. There is a story that one Lord was refused permission to leave off his wig at court. In 1860 the council were permitted to remove their wigs during a heat wave. This attracted some comment in the press and it was suggested that wigs were abandoned altogether by the legal profession. However, the proposal met with little support, though it has been a common occurrence ever since for judges to allow wigs to be left off in very hot weather, and sometimes turbans are allowed to be worn instead of wigs on religious grounds. Early wigs are difficult to identify in portraits of the period because they were of a natural colour and were sometimes combined with a lock of growing hair at the forehead. However, wigs soon became large and increasingly stylized.
Whiskey (from the Gaelic for "water of life"), spirituous liquor distilled from a fermented mash of grains, usually rye, barley, oats, wheat, or corn. Inferior whiskeys are made from potatoes, beets, and other roots.
The standard whiskeys of the world are Scotch (commonly spelled whisky ), Irish, American, and Canadian. The Scotch Highland whisky (made in pot stills) and that of the Lowlands (patent stills) differ in the percentage of barley used, quality of the water, quantity of peat employed in curing the malt, manner of distilling, and kind of casks in which they are matured. Irish whiskey resembles Scotch, but no peat is used in the curing, and instead of the dry, somewhat smoky flavor of Scotch, it has a full, sweet taste.
American whiskeys are divided into two main varieties, rye and bourbon, a corn whiskey that derives its name from Bourbon co., Ky. They have a higher flavor and a much deeper color than Scotch or Irish and require from two to three years longer to mature. Newly made whiskey is colorless, the rich brown of the matured liquor being acquired from the cask in which it is stored. Canadian whiskey has a characteristic lightness of body and must, according to law, be produced from cereal grain only.
Whiskey was made in England in the 11th cent., chiefly in monasteries, but in the 16th cent. distilling was carried on commercially. No whiskey can be released from bond in Great Britain until it has matured in wood at least three years, and in practice most whiskey is stored seven or eight years before marketing. In the United States bonded whiskey must stay a minimum of four years in bond before it can be labeled as bonded rye or bourbon.
The illicit manufacture of whiskey to avoid payment of excise taxes has been common. In the United States this is known as moonshining.
US Armed Forces
The Armed Forces of the USA include the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps and Coast Guard. The regular components are manned by both men and women who make the military life their profession. Under the Constitution of the United States the President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President is assisted by several agencies - the US Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The Secretary of the Army, a civilian, is the head of the Army. He is assisted by other civilian officials and by the Army Staff.
Americans go to Army because the salary in the Army is stable and high, the meals for soldiers are free. You may travel all over the world because there are a lot of military bases in many countries. You may get a new profession. The Pentagon pays for your University course. And even when you leave the Army, they will take care of you during the rest of your life (special hospitals and so on). Women join the Army because they want to have equal rights with men.
The Pentagon is the military center of the United States. In April 1949, the USA set up a military organization in Europe called NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). There were 12 countries there.
Urban legends are popular stories alleged to be true and transmitted from person to person by oral or written communication.People didn't begin talking about "urban legends" until the 1930s and 1940s, but they have existed in some form for thousands of years. Urban legends are simply the modern version of traditional folklore, legends and myths. In most cultures of the world, they have always existed alongside, or in place of, recorded history. Where history is obsessed with accurately writing down the details of events, traditional folklore and legends are characterized by the "oral tradition," the passing of stories by word of mouth.
In old Europe, the deep forests was a mysterious place to people, and there were indeed creatures that might attack you there (the crone Baba Yaga in the ancient slavic folklor, for instance). We do have a lot of fears in common with our ancestors, of course. As is clear in "Snow White and the Seven Dwarves," the fear of food contamination has been around for quite a while.
Typically, urban legends are characterized by some combination of humor, horror, warning, embarrassment, morality or appeal to empathy. We hear stories and rumours about killers and madmen on the loose, unsafe manufactured products, shocking or funny personal experiences and many other unexplained mysteries of daily life. Sometimes we encounter different oral versions of such stories, and on occasion we may read about similar events in newspapers or magazines; but seldom do we find, or even seek after, reliable documentation. Remember, urban legends aren't defined as false stories, they're defined as stories alleged to be true in the absence of real evidence or proof. The lack of verification in no way diminished the appeal urban legends have for us. We enjoy them merely as stories, and we tend at least to half-believe them as possibly accurate reports.
It might seem unlikely that legends - urban legends at that - would continue to be created in an age of widespread literacy, rapid mass communications and information technology. In fact, information technology actually accelerates the spread of tall tales. In the past 10 years, there has been a huge surge of urban legends on the Internet. The most common venue is forwarded e-mail. This storytelling method is unique because usually the story is not re-interpreted by each person who passes it on. A person simply clicks the "Forward" icon in their e-mail, and types in all his friend's e-mail addresses. Having the original story gives e-mail legends a feeling of legitimacy. You don't know the original author, but they are speaking directly to you.
The most remarkable thing about urban legends is that so many people believe them and pass them on. On the Internet and in universities all over the world, you'll find a lot of people interested in the role of urban legends in modern society. Many folklorists argue that more the more gruesome legends embody basic human fears, providing a cautionary note or moral lesson telling us how to protect ourselves from danger. It does seem to be the case that we have a built-in tendency to interpret life in narrative terms, in spite of how rarely events in the real world unfold in a story-like fashion. Maybe it's a psychological survival tactic. Consider some of the horrifying, absurd, incomprehensible realities we must reckon with during our short sojourns as mortal human beings. Perhaps one of the ways we cope is by turning the things that scare us, embarrass us, fill us with longing and make us laugh into tall tales. We're charmed by them for the same reasons we're charmed by Hollywood movies: good guys win, bad guys get their comeuppance, everything is larger than life and never a loose end is left dangling.
By definition, urban legends seem to have a life of their own, creeping through a society one person at a time. And like a real life form, they adapt to changing conditions. It will always be human nature to tell bizarre stories, and there will always be an audience waiting to believe them. The urban legend is part of our make-up.
UN Peace-keeping Forces
Peace-keeping is one of the ways the UN help to maintain international peace and security. In the UN contest, peace-keeping has been defined as the use of multinational forces under United Nations command, to help control and resolve conflicts between hostile states and sometimes between hostile communities within a single state. It is a technique pioneered by the UN – the soldier is a catalyst for peace rather than an instrument of war. United Nations peace-keepers are either unarmed observers or lightly-armed forces. They can observe a situation and report to the Secretary-General or investigate violations or patrol buffer zones. Peace-keeping operations are only established within the countries involved. Some of the peace-keepers are regular soldiers, others are reservists. A normal tour of duty lasts six months to a year. The requirements of peace-keeping can be very different from those of normal soldiering – diplomacy and tact are needed more than combat skills.
Travelling to Russia and the USA
I want to begin my conversation with you about the travelling to Russia and my favorite country – the United States of America. As we know, travelling is the best way to learn more about other culture, to open our mind, to meet new foreign people and sometimes even to make a friendship with them.
Of course, Russia is the great country and everybody will be agree with it. It`s the largest country in the world, I`m so proud to live there. Russia is a homeland of classical ballet school and Russian literature is very popular throughout the world. All educated people know our writers, poets, compositors and they are exited by them.
I also want to talk about the USA. By the way, I became studying English language because of my love to the culture of this country. Nowadays USA is considered to be the world’s most powerful state. The economy of the country is characterized by steady growth, low level of unemployment and inflation, and great advances in technology. This is the country of contrasts that attracts different people from all over the world. I love this country cause there are many places worst seeing in the most beautiful town of the USA – New-York. The most famous of them is the largest statue in the world The Statue of Liberty, presented to the USA by France in 1886. The Empire State Building used to be the highest building, but now it is only the third. It is a 102- storeyed building. Broadway is the longest street in the world. It is about 12 miles long. It is the center of entertainments. The Central Park is also the largest park in the world.
In conclusion I want to say that for having a good travelling you should chose the country that is close to you, where you feel yourself free like a fish at the ocean and where everything will inspire you and give a wonderful mood.
Modern life is impossible without travelling. Thousands of people travel every day either on business or for pleasure. They can travel by air, by rail, by see or by road.
Travelling by air is the fastest and the most convenient way, but it is the most expensive too. To my mind travelling by train is more interesting. You can see interesting places of the country you are travelling through. Modern trains have very comfortable seats. There are also sleeping carriages and a dining- carriage which make even the longest journey enjoyable.
Travelling by sea is very popular. On board of ship you can enjoy your trip. There are tennis and badminton grounds, a swimming-pool, a cinema and a dancing hall there. Some people prefer travelling by car. If you have your own car you may go to the Black Sea, where there are a lot of rest-houses, sanatorium's and tourist camps. In the daytime you can have a nice opportunity to play volley-ball, swim in the warm water of the sea and sunbathe. In the evening you like to sit on the beach watching the sea and enjoying the sunset.
As for me I'm a hiker. I like to go on a hike to the mountains or to the forest. You go agree with me that it is pleasant to gather mushrooms and berries in the forest, swim in the river, make a fire and prepare meals on it. On my week-end I take a tent, a rucksack and go to railway station take the train. In an hour I find myself out of noisy city. The air is fresh, birds sing their merry songs. To make my long story short I'd like to say that travelling is one of my hobbies. Travelling helps me to see to country-side better, to know about customs and traditions of the Republic, to meet people and make friends with them.
Almost all people are fond of travelling. It is very interesting to see new places, another towns and countries. People may travel either for pleasure or on business. There are various means of travelling. For me there is nothing like travel by air; it is more comfortable, more convenient and, of course, far quicker than any other means. There is none of the dust and dirt of a railway or car journey, none of the trouble of changing from train to steamer and then to another train.
With a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. From the comfortable seat of a railway carriage you have a splendid view of the whole countryside. If you are hungry, you can have a meal in the dining-car; and if a journey is a long one you can have a wonderful bed in a sleeper.
Travelling by ship is also very popular now. It is very pleasant to feel the deck of the ship under the feet, to see the rise and fall of the waves, to feel the fresh sea wind blowing in the face and hear the cry of the seagulls.
Many people like to travel by car. It is interesting too, because you can see many sights in a short time, you can stop when and where you like, you do not have to buy tickets or carry your suitcases.
A very popular means of travelling is hiking. It is travelling on foot. Walking tours are very interesting. Hitch-hiking is a very popular method of travelling among young people. But it is not as popular in our country as abroad.
Travel broadens the mind
Everyone needs at least one holiday a year, so when you begin spending sleepless nights thinking about the sun and the sea, when you think longingly of the green countryside and forget the mosquitoes and the boredom, there're no doubt about it – you're ready for a holiday. You need to get away from all your usual routines and get some fresh air and a change of perspective. Travel is necessary for us all. It keeps us from growing stale and old, it develops our imagination, it gives us that movement and change which are necessary to our life. One of the aims of travel is to go in search of beauty. The beauty spots of the world are magnets, which attract travelers year after year. Yet even more valuable for the traveler is the knowledge, which he gets by going among people of different characters and different ways of life. Then there is for the traveler the great joy of coming home again. When his curiosity for new scenes is satisfied, he turns his thought toward home where all the things are the most familiar and he loves them. Therefore, the traveler, besides the delight of travel, has the warmest feeling of returning home.
Traveling nowadays has become an important part of modern life. Millions of people all over the world travel about their own countries and to foreign lands as well. People travel to visit natural destinations such as seas, lakes, rivers, mountain ranges, deserts and so on. It's always interesting to discover new things and other ways of life, to meet different people, taste different food, examine various architectural styles, visit museums and picture galleries. It's common knowledge that travelling is a key to understanding other cultures and a wonderful opportunity to learn more about the world we live in.
Tourism is travelling for pleasure or enjoying yourself away from the place you live in. Nowadays tourism is growing very fast, mostly because people's lifestyles have changed. They don't want to stay at home anymore. To my mind, it's because travelling has become cheaper. What was once the "grand tour", reserved for only the very rich, is now within everybody's grasp. Now nearly everyone can afford traveling around the world. Not only are budget airlines offering cheap fares, but the higher valued airlines as well. In addition, it's easy, faster and you get more freedom while travelling. The main reason for this is the technical superiority. For example, you easily book a ticket through the Internet. You don't face long queues wasting your time. Therefore, it simplifies our life. Another change is money. Now we use handy little plastic cards: you can do purchases around the world without any difficulties or problems with local currency. Not long ago this was unthinkable but today it's reality. So with all of today's technological advances, it has become easier than ever to travel abroad.
Although tourism has many benefits, such as bringing extra money into the local economy, there are also negative effect. Tourism can do all sorts of damage to the environment, the culture and the people of a country, especially in places which aren't prepared for large numbers of holidaymakers. It's important to know how to travel wise. Firstly, you should find out as much about your holiday destination as you can. A guidebook is great place to start. As well as learning about the local places of interest, you can read about the way you will be expected to behave and dress. This can save you from making embarrassing mistakes. The next step is to think about how you spend your money when you are on holiday. Try to put it into the local people's hands. Even in places where you are expected to haggle or bargain, you should always pay a fair price for things. Then, try to have as little effect on the local environment as possible. Try to leave place exactly as you found it. It's necessary to follow this simply rules in order to save the culture and environment of the places you visit and to be welcome wherever we go.
Nowadays people can travel in different ways. They can choose a package tour, when everything is planned without your participation, and a self-tour, when you play it off the cuff.
Traveling yourself gives you the freedom to create you own schedule, do as you please. However, when a trip reveals unexpected joys, adventures and challenges, oftentimes these things are best shared with another person, who can relate to your situation and provide moral support. To ensure that a travel partner is one who can value to your journey, choose a travel companion who has similar travel preferences and personality characteristics. It's importation to find a common interest. I would request my traveling partner to have a lot of energy and be open to seeing and doing a variety of different things. Outgoing without being overbearing or annoying is desirable. Moreover, someone who is easygoing. Life changes, plans change. However, the best traveling partner is someone, who doesn't get ruffled in tough time and can see the light through a dark moment and laugh! Also, and this way be the biggest thing, they have to be pretty tight with their money. In order to have a pleasant time abroad you need to choose the right partner, who can share your interests and can be a good company.
One of the way to travel independent without intrusive travel agents is to go camping. It's the ideal way of spending a holiday for many people nowadays. You see, camping has so much to offer. You enjoy absolute freedom. You have none of the headaches of advance hotel booking or driving around a city at midnight looking for a room. Modern camping sites are well equipped with hot and cold running water and all necessary facilities. But above all, you enjoy tremendous mobility. Moreover, you are active all the time and you are always close to nature. Camping provides you with a real change from everyday living. And that's the essence of true recreation and real enjoyment.
What about a package tour, of course it has many advantages. By choosing a holiday package, you actually get rid of all activities, starting from booking flight tickets, checking out accommodation availability at hotels and booking rooms. Everything will be done on your behalf by the tour operator and would simply be paying the charge. Another big advantage of tour packages is complete tour. At the same time package holidays have a number of disadvantages. To start with, conducted tours to places of interest are carefully censored. The tourist is allowed to see only what the organizers want him to see and no more. A strict schedule makes it impossible for the tourist to wander off on his own. The sad thing about this situation is that it leads to the persistence of national stereotypes. We don't see the people of other nations as they really are, but as we have been brought up to believe they are.
People choose different places to visit. Some are looking for sandy beaches, sparkling waters and cloudless skies. Others rest in spacious and elegant rooms, dine on delicious cuisine or unwind in a relaxing sauna, and the luxurious hotels cater for every need. All adventurous nature lovers who long to escape to a land of endless rivers, bottomless lakes, towering mountains and colossal cliffs choose mostly campsites.
As for me I'd like to visit one of the most gorgeous cities - …
I guess everybody will agree that travel broadens the mind. That's true. Getting out of the place where you always live, then going to an unfamiliar place will be a kind of unforgettable experience in your life.