Adabiyotlar 622452 ta
Videodars 982 ta
Audiokitob 2205 ta

 

BRIGHT FEATURES OF BOBUR'S PERSONALITY

In the history of our values, we are accustomed to mentioning Zahiriddin Babur as a complex person. Every time we read the world-famous work "Boburnoma", charming ghazals, "Walidia" by Khoja Ahrori Vali, who lovingly translated, we see the superiority of his personality over contemporary rulers. In our articles, books and other scientific research, the idea of ​​the greatness of Babur’s personality­and sought to complement these views. But we also realize how complex his personality is, that some aspects of it still need to be determined objectively, and we are sometimes hesitant to go into it.

Today we dare to express some of our thoughts on the occasion of the writer's birthday. Among historians and literary scholars, Zahiruddin Babur's attitude towards the two wings of Islam, the Sunni and the Shia, is divided. Throughout his life, Babur, as a perfect Muslim, remained loyal to the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam. It is known from history that Islam was divided into two wings shortly after its emergence. The enemies of the religion of Islam have even to this day placed these two wings opposite each other in order to diminish its power. trying to carry out their plans. Babur's main goal was to restore the reign of his grandfather Amir Temur and so on­In this way, he overcame all his desires, other intentions and aspirations, and worked hard and achieved significant results. He forgave the conspiracies and betrayals of his closest relatives, agreed to make peace with his enemies, and agreed to marry his beloved owner Khanzodabegim to his fiercest enemy, Shaibanikhan. 'rcatib gave him a place in the palace. King Babur saw such events as an important diplomatic way to preserve the integrity of the kingdom.

Comparing Shaibanikhan's fierce resistance and strength with his military capabilities, he said: “I stayed in Kabul. The enemy is very strong, we are very weak, we can neither advise nor resist. So much strength and power. It is the indulgence of the idea of ​​a place for ourselves, and this amount is the separation of the fury and the opportunity away from the strong enemy. "Either the people of Badakhshan or the people of India must be punished," Babur said, adding that he was in a very difficult political situation. Babur’s goal of returning to Movarounnahr, where his umbilical cord blood was shed, did not leave him for the rest of his life. For example, in "Boburnoma" the author writes: "Our presumption is that it is impossible to go there." Indian affairs are also finding a kind of straw. I hope that the work of this relationship will be completed by the grace of God. This work is uninterrupted after the conquest, God willing, it is mutawajjih. Let no one forget the charms of those provinces. Especially when the world is slippery and dark, how can one remember such a beautiful treasure as a melon and a grape? ” These lines were written during the time when Babur established a strong kingdom in India. Let us pay attention to the above quote, which vividly expresses his longing for his homeland. In the expression of this thought, which is a sacred goal for Babur, he appeals to God three times.

Despite the fact that this confession was addressed to Babur, and sometimes blamed, and the buildings he built in India, the gardens he built, and the perfection of the Movarounnahr civilization with a high state policy, “why did Babur make this creation his homeland? He did not do so in Movarounnahr. ” The world fame of Babur's creative work in the Indian subcontinent is higher than the fame of the monuments that are likely to be erected in Movarounnahr. Babur entered the city of Samarkand in 1512 and his grandfather Amir Temur, his father Umarshaikh Mirza succeeded to sit on the throne of the capital for some time. Later he was wounded in a battle with Bukhara khan Ubaydulla. This defeat was a situation that posed a great danger that Bobur’s original goal would fail. During this time, he asked the King of Iran, Ismail Safavi, for military assistance, and for this help, he offered to include the name of Ismail Safavi and the Shia sect in a sermon in the Samarkand mosque. The people of Samarkand, who belong to the pure Sunni sect, look at Bobur with sincerity, but do not approve of his actions. He will be forced to leave the city. However, as mentioned above, Babur dreams of returning to Movarounnahr for a lifetime. After this unfortunate incident in his life, Babur breaks off his relationship with Ismail Safavi. This is also due to the events in Karshi. Some historians attribute Bobur's move to religious confusion.

In our view, this issue should be approached from the perspective of Bobur’s political views. It is well known that the confrontation between Sunnis and Shiites has lasted for centuries, with many bloody wars in history. Babur Eca has never been a fanatical believer and was in favor of seeing these two wings of Islam together. He did not consider the actions of the Shiites to be a sect that posed a serious threat to Islam, and therefore accepted the offer of Ismail Safavi, who did not consider this decision to be contrary to the Sunni sect. Second, Babur agreed to the condition of Icmail Jafavi with only one goal - to achieve the goal of restoring the reign of Amir Temur. Later, Babur's son Humayun also entered into negotiations with the kings of Iran in his struggle against the Sultan of India, Sher Shah, and did not return their support, thus preserving the Baburi kingdom. Such a policy, not to interfere in the affairs of Sunnis and Shiites, not to raise their disputes on a state scale, was inherited by Humayun's father, and this policy justified itself. In his state administration, Zahiruddin Babur pursued a policy of tolerance, in modern parlance, through as much harmony, mutual understanding and partial concession as possible to sectarian and religious conflicts between nations, peoples and tribes, and in India between different castes. During his reign in Afghanistan, he married an Afghan girl, Dildora Aghacha, and had two children from Indian girls. In his will, which he wrote to his son Humayun, he said: “O child! The country of India is made up of different sects. Praise be to Allaah, you have been commanded to look at every sect with a pure heart and to be just to every sect and sect. In particular, refrain from sacrificing the cow, for it is the heart of the people of India, and the people of this province are associated with a good look at the king. Do not destroy the people who obey the king's decree. Choose justice. Then the king will be at peace with the people, and the people will be at peace with the king. The progress of Islam is better with a donation knife. It's not with a razor blade.

"It is important to note that during the testament, Babur did not take into account the differences between the Sunni and Shia sects, and that the conflict between the two wings would only lead to the loss of the power of Islam. We see that Babur did not seek blame from either wing, but wanted them to unite around a single creed, the holy religion of Islam, which clearly shows his attitude towards the Shiites: “Shut your eyes from the insults of the Sunnis and the Shiites. Because there are opponents of Islam. Treat people of different faiths equally, so that the kingdom is free from various worries. ” In our view, Babur's temporary views on the Shia sect in Samarkand should be sought on the basis of his aspirations for a strong kingdom. The text above is a clear proof of this. Later, Babur's grandson Akbarshah, who raised the Baburi kingdom to a new height in India, carried out this will of his grandfather as much as possible and led the unification of different religious sects, their pursuit of a common goal. Another important aspect of Babur's life is the issue of the title of "Gazi" given to him in connection with his wars in India and his final victory. We know many Gazi sultans, kings and generals from the sources on the history of the peoples of the East. In their wars, most of them carried out their intentions by massacring the people, sects, or sects of the country, region, or denomination of the non-believers they saw as the basis of their particular religious beliefs. aimed at increasing. After the realization of these intentions, they were given the title of "gozi" by the religious leaders - the person who won the victory through the conquest. In history, Sultan Mahmud, Sultan Muhammad Ghazi and others were called "Ghazi" because of these services.

Zahiruddin Babur was also known for his victory over Ibrahim Lodhi and other Indian sultans in India. So what is the difference between them? First of all, as we have noted, the above-mentioned sultans, from a religious point of view, fought to unite people of other faiths who were against Islam under the banner of Islam, and made numerous sacrifices. were small. We seem to have shed some light on this issue through the above evidence of Babur’s views on Islam, his views on the Sunni and Shia wings, and his fair treatment of religions and sects in India. The king hyech, who has such a view, cannot at times direct the aim of his struggles towards the masses outside of Islam. Bobur's march to India and the death of thousands in these battles are described in the Boburnoma. However, this march, as Babur himself pointed out, was not a struggle against the "infidels", but a struggle to re-occupy the lands of India under the rule of Amir Temur, to retain the power of the kingdom as before. Nowhere in the pages of the Boburnoma is there a picture of the people's struggle against Islam. The writer's main goal was to restore his grandfather's kingdom. Therefore, it can be concluded that Babur was given the title of "gazi", more precisely, at the suggestion of Islamic leaders. A text in the Fath decree issued in this regard supports our view. Although the term "disbeliever" means those who do not belong to Islam, in fact, at the heart of this word are the Indian soldiers, Babur's military rivals. The text of the decree does not contain words or phrases such as "those who oppose Islam", "those who do not perform Islamic prayers", "those who do not submit to Islam", it is about the enemy's troops and its power. The term "famous infidels" does not refer to the followers of Buddhism, which is the religion of India, but to the Indian generals, such as Salahuddin, Raval Uday Singh Baghari, Medini Ray, and Barmal Idri, who united to fight Babur's army.

Therefore, Babur entered the military battles in this war without any religious uprising and won. Let us pay attention to the following text of the decree: “These days, many of the famous infidels hyech when hyech in a campaign to him (i.e. Indian leader Raana Sangaaga - HQ ) increased their ranks of corrupt natural armies in terms of their hostility to the soldiers of Islam. ” Elsewhere in the decree, Amir Temur, a vassal of the Indian sultans and rajas, “planted the flag of the infidels in about two hundred cities of the Islamic world. He destroyed mosques and temples and took captive the wives and children of the believers there. It is clear that Babur's "conquest" was not a religious movement, but aimed at reclaiming the lands belonging to the Timurids, to protect their honor. Therefore, the rank of "Ghazi" king given to Zahiriddin Babur is relative, and he is radically different from other Ghazi sultans. The following opinion of the historian, Boburshon G. Satimov clarifies this issue: “Of course, While in India, he was intolerant of the local Hindu religion, but this was only felt during the war, when the desire to win was burning… not because they were pagans, but because they wanted to expand their kingdom. 'The league got out of the way as a rival. It is important to remember that in the pursuit of this goal, he has eliminated not only the non-pagan Rajputs, but also many Muslim Afghans.

"Babur has many qualities that are different from other Eastern kings of the past and amaze us, and it is difficult to give a detailed opinion about them in one article. We conclude our discussion with the objective statement of the Indian historian Sri Ram Sharma: “Even though the Baburis came to India as conquerors, they won the respect of the local Indians under their control and were able to establish traditions and customs that pleased them. Every morning, the king should appear before the citizens at the "Jarohai darshon" ceremony (greetings), the applicants should be able to enter the reception of the king with a complaint, the tasks to be performed by the heads of administrative departments should be clearly defined… it must be seen as a fair act of governing the country. ” We hope that these testimonies will once again help us to understand some of the views on Bobur’s personality. that the petitioners should have access to the king's reception with a complaint, that the duties to be performed by the heads of administrative departments should be clearly defined, and that they should be treated fairly in governing the country. ” We hope that these testimonies will once again help us to understand some of the views on Bobur’s personality. it must be seen that the petitioners have access to the king's reception with a complaint, that the duties of the heads of the administrative departments are clearly defined, and that it is fair to run the country. ” We hope that these testimonies will once again help to understand some of the views on Bobur’s personality.